Subscribe to Koreabridge feed
Updated: 1 min 47 sec ago

Gareungbinga and Gongmyeongjo – Kalavinka and Jivamjivaka: 가릉빈가 & 공명조

Tue, 2021-05-25 00:42
The Gongmyeongjo (Jivamjivaka) at Gwaneumsa Temple in Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do. Introduction

Two of the more obscure figures you’ll find at a Korean Buddhist temple or hermitage is Gareungbinga or “Kalavinka” in Sanskrit, and Gongmyeongjo or “Jivamjivaka” in Sanskrit. While these human-bird-like creatures were once far more prominent at temples, they are now much harder to find. So what do they look like? Where can you find them? And what do they symbolize?

Gareungbinga – Kalavinka

The first of these two mysterious human-bird-like creatures is the Gareungbinga – 가릉빈가 in Korean, or Kalavinka in Sanskrit. What physically distinguishes this mythological creature from its Gongmyeongjo counterpart are the amount of heads. Both have bird bodies, while the upper portion is human. But while the Gareungbinga has one head, the Gongmyeongjo has two heads. The exact origins of the Gareungbinga are unclear; but it’s believed by some that the Gareungbinga are based on the real birds of India.

According to myth, Gareungbinga live in the Buddhist Pure Land, or Jeongto in Korean. It can live here or among the snowy forests of the Himalayas. The Kalavinka is said to have started singing even before it left its shell to live in the Himalayas and the Pure Land. The Korean word Gareungbinga is a transliteration of the Sanskrit word Kalavinka for this creature. The Sanskirt name of Kalavinka means “a beautiful sound” in English. And it’s believed that the Kalavinka has the most beautiful, the purest, and the most delicate of voices found in Buddhist texts. For this reason, the voice of the Kalavinka is often described as having Buddha’s voice. In fact, there are a couple Buddhist sutras where the Buddha’s voice is described as being like a Kalavinka. Specifically, this can be found in the “Parable of the Phantom City,” which is from chapter seven of the Lotus Sutra. In this section of the sutra it says, “Sage lord, heavenly being among heavenly beings, voiced like the Kalavinka bird, you who pity and comfort living beings, we now pay you honour and reverence,” when specifically describing the voice of the Buddha, Seokgamoni-bul.

The Gareungbinga (Kalavinka) adorning the base of the East Stupa at Yeongoksa Temple in Gurye, Jeollanam-do. The stupa is National Treasure #53. (Picture Courtesy of the CHA).

Like Buddhism, the image of the Kalavinka migrated eastward first from India, on towards China, and finally arriving on the Korean peninsula and then onto Japan. The image of a Kalavinka appears on ancient tomb murals from Goguryeo Kingdom (37 B.C. – 668 A.D.). The Kalavinka has also appeared as a roof tile design and on pagodas from Later Silla (668-935 A.D.). The image of the Kalavinka has also appeared on stupas from the Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392) and in the murals on temples from the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910).

Specifically in Buddhist art, a Kalavinka can appear either singing or playing a musical instrument like the Bipa (a Korean mandolin). A Kalavinka is also a celestial being similar to an angel. Another name for a Kalavinka in Korean, other than Gareungbinga, is Geukrakjo. “Geukrak” is a reference to the Pure Land in Buddhism where Amita-bul (The Buddha of the Western Paradise) resides. This is the destination for people after the cycle of Samsara has come to an end. Instead of being reincarnated, people live in the Pure Land, or “Jeongto” in Korean, forever. The Pure Land is believed to be filled with beautiful jewels, flowers, and fruit. As such, the Pure Land is filled with a sweet scent. And included in this beauty is the beautiful singing of the Kalavinka that makes the Pure Land that much more beautiful with its voice.

A Gongmyeongjo (Jivajivaka) from Chuiunam Hermitage in Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do. (Picture Courtesy of Naver). Gongmyeongjo – Jivajivaka

Almost identical in appearance to the Gareungbinga, and often confused, what differentiates the Gongmyeongjo from a Gareungbinga are the number of heads to this human-bird-like mythical creature. Again, a Gongmyeongjo has two heads while a Gareungbinga has one. But while they appear nearly identical in appearance, they do have quite distinct backgrounds and distinct symbolic meanings.

The Korean word for this mythological creature is Gongmyeongjo – 공명조. In Sanskrit, this creature is known as Jivajivaka. The name is derived from a bird’s chirping sound. There doesn’t seem to be a specific history behind the Gongmyeongjo; instead, it’s guessed that this creature was transported along the Silk Road since a two-headed eagle and/or stork appeared in ancient Middle Eastern and Roman iconography like in paintings and statues. So historians have long thought that with the migration of people through commerce and trade, art and ideas, the Jivajivaka also migrated eastward.

A Gongmyeongjo (Jivamjivaka) from a temple in southern Jeju-do. (Photo Courtesy of David Mason).

A Jivajivaka flies with light feathers and a golden body with two heads. And despite the fact that the Jivajivaka has two heads with one body, they have two different spirits. And yet, they live and die at the same time.

Like a Kalavinka, the Jivajivaka is also described in Buddhist texts as having a beautiful voice. Interestingly, the Gongmyeongjo appears just as often as the Gareungbinga in Buddhist texts. Specifically there is a story that begins with a Garuda (enormous predatory birds) and a Wupagaruda (a bird with two heads sharing one body). One day when the Wupagaruda fell asleep, the Garuda ate some delicious food that it found all by itself. After the Wupagaruda found out about this, it was very upset. Later, the Wupagaruda saw a beautiful flower that was poisonous. So angry about the Garuda being so selfish, the Wupagaruda ate the poisonous flower killing the two-headed creature. At the end of the story, the Garuda found out the reason the Wupagaruda ate the poisonous flower and asked, “Why did you do all that?” the Wupagaruda answered in a poem:

  • “When you fell asleep,
  • I ate the delicate and sweet flower.
  • That flower came with the wind,
  • But you were very angry,
  • I don’t want to see a stupid person,
  • I don’t want to hear that I lived with a stupid person.
  • There’s no benefit to live with a stupid person,
  • That person just harms other people and himself.”

This poem makes plain the utter detestation that a Gongmyeongjo has for selfishness and stupidity both in others and in oneself. It’s from this sort of self-centeredness that a lot of harm can enter into world and injure others and oneself whether these actions are intentional or not. So a Gongmyeongjo reminds us to be more mindful when we act.

The headless Gareungbinga adorning the capstone of Korean Treasure #275, Stele for Buddhist Monk Gwangja at Taeansa Temple. Examples

Here are a few of the great examples Gareungbinga that you can find in and around Korean temples and hermitages. Perhaps the most famous can be found on the East Stupa of Yeongoksa Temple in Gurye, Jeollanam-do. The stone relief can be found at the base of this national treasure. Another great example of this one headed creature, which is in fact missing on this statue, is the Stele for Buddhist Monk Gwangja at Taeansa Temple in Gokseong, Jeollnam-do. The capstone is adorned with a headless Gareungbinga, and the stele is Korean Treasure #275. And one final example of a Gareungbinga is a part of the main altar inside the Daeung-jeon Hall, which is Korean Treasure #562, at Hwanseongsa Temple in Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-do.

As for the two-headed Gongmyeongjo, you can find an older mural dedicated to this mythological figure at Chwiunam Hermitage at Tongdosa Temple in Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do. And another far more elaborate mural of the Gongmyeongjo can be found above the entry of the main hall at Gwaneumsa Temple in Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do.


There aren’t too many examples of either a Gareungbinga and/or a Gongmyeongjo in and around Korean temple grounds. But a couple places you might keep your eye on are in and around older stupas and some of the murals around temple shrine halls like the Daeung-jeon Hall. While not common, they are definitely distinctive. And if you listen close enough, perhaps you’ll be lucky enough to hear their heavenly voices.

A part of the main altar inside the Daeung-jeon Hall at Hwanseongsa Temple in Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-do. (Picture Courtesy of Naver Blog). —


Dale's Korean Temple Adventures YouTube

Inner Peace Art Store



Categories: Worldbridges Megafeed

Koreans don’t say “Umm” | Korean FAQ

Mon, 2021-05-24 16:51

A quick way to tell if someone is a native Korean speaker or not, is to pay attention to whether or not they use sounds such as "umm" or "uhh" often when speaking. This isn't to say that Koreans don't make these sounds (they do), but they often use different sounds than in English.

This video will share some alternate sounds that you can make when you're thinking to sound more like a native speaker.

The post Koreans don’t say “Umm” | Korean FAQ appeared first on Learn Korean with GO! Billy Korean.





Categories: Worldbridges Megafeed

Koreans don’t say “Umm” | Korean FAQ

Mon, 2021-05-24 13:00





Categories: Worldbridges Megafeed

2009 Kia Morning

Sun, 2021-05-23 11:05
Classified Ad Type: Location: Neighborhood: Jeonggwan-eup, Gijang-gunContact person by email

--2009 Kia Morning--

101,000 km

No accidents, 2 owners

front and back cameras already installed

A/C and heat, heated seats

backup sensors

Minor scratches, some paint peeling on the side mirrors

Freshly changed oil, wash + detail

Runs well, no issues!

gasoline, automatic

3.5 million

Available starting in July

please call me for pictures and more info @ 010-7664-9642

Categories: Worldbridges Megafeed

BAORUITENG Retro Game Console

Sun, 2021-05-23 10:00
Classified Ad Type: Location: Neighborhood: Haeundae-Marine cityContact person by email BAORUITENG Handheld Game Console, Retro Arcade Mini Game Console for Game Player with 3 Inch 512 Games 32 Bit Portable Game Console,Birthday Gift for Children (Black)


20 000


text me at 010 4078 5212

41n-vSAkB0L._AC_.jpg 41RbBrJLF4L._AC_SY1000_.jpg


Categories: Worldbridges Megafeed

Board and Card Games for Sale Part 2

Sun, 2021-05-23 09:30
Classified Ad Type: Location: Neighborhood: Haeundae-Marine cityContact person by email

Here is a current list of my current Board and card games for sale:.

Text me at 010 4078 5212 if you are interested.


Games I am selling:

                           (New games never used)

  1. Wizards wanted, new, price 25 000
  2. Game For Fame new, Price 25 000
  3. Avalon                     new          10 000
  4. Treasure Trouble     new         5500
  5. Captain TCG      New        5 000
  6. Magic the Gathering Starter new 10 000


Used Games


Munchkin Deluxe, used once

(20 000)

Taboo Kids VS Parents, (15 000)

Feed the Frog  (5000)

Go Fish              (2000)

Ghost (5000) Ghost Chess

Disney Pictopia (15 000)

Cranium , used once (10 000)

Chutes & ladders (3000)

Candy Land (3000)

Operation (3000)

Clue Junior (5000)

Bears Vs Babies (7500)

Taco,cat goat cheese pizza (3500)

Saboteur  (3500)

Battle Line   (3500)

Go Nuts!      (3500)

Unstable Unicorns      (5000)

Too Many Monkeys    (3500)

Onitama                  (10 000)

Catan Junior          (10 000)

Bamboozled           (5000)

Lost cities  (3500)

Clash of the Cards never used (5000)

Five Crowns Junior  (3500)

Operation                (3500)

Chess travel pack      (2500)

Memory,crazy 8’s,Go Fish,slapjack, matching, 6 games in one (7000)

Wig Out                      (2000)

Guess Who?             (5000)

Blokus                         (5000)

Uno Korean              (1000)

Sequence                   (5000)

Life                              (5000)

Bowling                      (5000)

HEDBANZ             (5000)

Blink                      (2000)

Charades for Kids (4000)

Reversi                    (1000)

Pack of cards         (1000)

Pictionary Card game (5000)

Jenga                         (3000)

Harry Potter Magical Beasts (5000)


















20210523_164646.jpg 20210523_170432.jpg 20210523_170440.jpg 20210523_173932.jpg 20210523_173916.jpg 20210523_173840.jpg 20210523_170444.jpg 20210523_164703.jpg 20210523_171656.jpg
Categories: Worldbridges Megafeed

move out item for sale (Pusan National University)

Sun, 2021-05-23 07:38
Classified Ad Type: Location: Neighborhood: Near Pusan National University (Geumjeong-gu)Contact person by email

For Sale Item

1. Electric heater (36 x 45 cm) 5000 KRW

2. Electric Fan (16 inch) 10000 KRW

3. Heater Mattress (single) 10000 KRW

4. Small Table (80 x 60 x 26 cm) 12000 KRW

5. Small Buffet Cabinet with 4 drawers (40 x 40 x 60 cm)  made of light wood material 15000 KRW

* all the items still working properly

*only for cash on delivery (COD) near Pusan National University

for more information contact me on KAKAOTALK 01029834438


KakaoTalk_Photo_2021-05-23-16-31-31.jpeg KakaoTalk_Photo_2021-05-23-16-31-40.jpeg KakaoTalk_Photo_2021-05-23-16-31-57.jpeg KakaoTalk_Photo_2021-05-23-16-32-08.jpeg KakaoTalk_Photo_2021-05-23-16-32-17.jpeg KakaoTalk_Photo_2021-05-23-16-32-23.jpeg KakaoTalk_Photo_2021-05-23-16-32-45.jpeg KakaoTalk_Photo_2021-05-23-16-32-51.jpeg KakaoTalk_Photo_2021-05-23-16-33-05.jpeg
Categories: Worldbridges Megafeed

Coffee cups

Sat, 2021-05-22 08:37
Classified Ad Type: Location: Neighborhood: Busan Contact person by email

Hi I am selling new never used coffee cups .One cup 10000 w  if you buy 3 it's W 25000 

63147289-70F2-4403-8223-5974C2D632CA.jpeg AACE1BBA-4FCC-4FB3-BB84-66A2B4F767B1.jpeg 7B6378EF-2A03-47F3-84C4-7E62C97605B5.jpeg
Categories: Worldbridges Megafeed

One studio of Dongseo university , near Naengjeong subway

Sat, 2021-05-22 01:03
Classified Ad Type: Location: Contact person by email

House places near Dongseo Univesity and Naengjeong subway

Key money : 3 mil won

Monthly rental fee: 350,000 won

Service Utility : Internet , wife, water , air conditioner , wash machine, stove, refrigerator , bed ,

desk, computer tv. parking ,

Eletricity  and Gas have to be paid by tenant


Contact: [email protected],  051-817-9996







20210220_135612.jpg 20200416_203942.jpg 세탁기.jpg 세탁기와 화장실.jpg 금강전면.jpg
Categories: Worldbridges Megafeed

Korean Test Practice with Billy [Ep. 29] – Intermediate Korean (Listening Practice)

Fri, 2021-05-21 18:25





Categories: Worldbridges Megafeed

Korean Test Practice with Billy [Ep. 29] – Intermediate Korean (Listening Practice)

Fri, 2021-05-21 18:24

If you're preparing for a test, you need as much practice as you can get. But even if you're not preparing for a test, being able to analyze Korean and solve problems is an important skill to have - even for daily conversations with friends.

So I've put together this series for you to practice of various difficulty levels from Beginner to Advanced. Try to solve the ones that match your current level.

Here is the listening example:

오늘도 저희 지하철을 이용해 주시는 고객 여러분들께 감사 인사를 드립니다. 현재 이용하고 계시는 지하철 노선은 일부 지하철역의 보수 공사 문제로 인해 이번 달까지만 정상 운영이 될 예정입니다. 다음 달 1일부터는 노선이 변경되어 일부 역에 정차하지 않을 예정입니다. 보수 공사를 진행하는 역은 빌리역, 키캣역, 고고역이며, 3달간 공사가 진행될 예정입니다. 해당 역을 이용하시는 고객 여러분들께서는 다른 교통 편을 이용해 주시기 바랍니다. 다시 한번 안내 말씀드립니다. 본 지하철 노선은 다음 달 1일부터 당분간 일부 역에 정차하지 않을 예정이오니 이 점 참고하시어 이용에 불편함이 없으시길 바랍니다. 감사합니다.

We would like to say thanks to you, our customer, again today for using our subway. The subway line you are currently will continue normal operation only for this month, due to repair work on some sections of the subway station. From the 1st of next month, the line will change, and will not stop at these stations. The stations proceeding with repair work are Billy Station, Keykat Station, and GoGo Station, and the construction is expected to last for a period of three months. We hope that customers who use these stations will use different transportation ways. Once more. This subway line will not stop at a few stations for a short while, starting from the 1st of next month, so we hope you will please note this to not have any inconvenience to your usage (of the subway). Thank you.

The post Korean Test Practice with Billy [Ep. 29] – Intermediate Korean (Listening Practice) appeared first on Learn Korean with GO! Billy Korean.

Categories: Worldbridges Megafeed

F6 Visa ESL Teacher Looking for a 1-2 Days/Week Teaching Job

Fri, 2021-05-21 00:32
Classified Ad Type: Location: Contact person by email

Hello, I am an enthusiastic and highly skilled teacher with a F6 Visa and more than 14 years of experience teaching ESL for kindergarten, elementary school, middle school, high school and university students. I am currently looking for a 1-2 days a week part-time teaching position. Let me know if you are interested and send me your email address, I will send you a resume and a profile picture. I will look forward to hearing from you. Best Regards.

Categories: Worldbridges Megafeed

Ggotsalmun – Flower Latticework Door: 꽃살문

Thu, 2021-05-20 23:33
The Latticework Adorning the Daeung-jeon Hall at Guryongsa Temple in Buk-gu, Busan. Introduction

Throughout Korea, and at the various Buddhist temples and hermitages that dot the Korean peninsula, you’ll find a countless amount of beautiful latticework adorning the entryways to temple shrine halls. This latticework is typically floral or geometric in design. And while these designs are usually rather stunning in appearance, the exact meaning behind them may be less clear. So what does this latticework look like? Where can you find it? And what does it all mean?

Location of the Latticework

The traditional place to find this latticework, which is known as “Ggotsalmun – 꽃살문” or “Flower Latticework Door” in English, is on the front side entryways of a temple shrine hall. Typically, the more important a temple shrine hall: the more ornate the latticework becomes. So the main hall at a Korean Buddhist temple, whether it’s a Daeung-jeon Hall, a Muryangsu-jeon Hall, or a Daejeokgwang-jeon Hall, it will have the most ornate latticework adorning the front side of the shrine hall. And the auxiliary halls like the Samseong-gak Hall or the Myeongbu-jeon Hall will usually have less elaborate latticework. This isn’t the rule, but it’s something that should be expected when you visit a Korean Buddhist temple or hermitage.

Designs of the Latticework

So typically, you’ll find four different types of latticework designs adorning the entryway to temple shrine halls. The more popular designs are floral and geometric. The two less popular designs that are harder to find adorning temple shrine halls are either animals or Buddhas and/or Bodhisattvas.

In total, there are typically three kinds of design patterns adorning the latticework. The first is a Diagonal Grid; the second is a Upright Diagonal Grid; and the third is the Upright Diagonal Floral Grid. While there are exceptions to these three standard designs, these are the three most common design patterns that you’ll find adorning Korean Buddhist temple shrine halls.

The Diagonal Grid sounds exactly the way you’d expect it to look with intricate cross-hatching of vertical and horizontal wooden strips. In Korean, this design is known as “Jeongjamun.” The wooden strips run at a forty-five degree angle.

The Upright Diagonal Grid, on the other hand, consists of the same diagonal pattern with vertical strips added at each intersecting part of the diagonal pattern. This mesh-like pattern is believed to ward off evil spirits just like the Diagonal Grid pattern.

The third, and final design, is the Upright Diagonal Floral Grid. This pattern is a mixture of floral and geometric designs. Of the three, this pattern is the most ornately designed. And not so surprisingly, it’s also the most popular, especially for the main hall at a given temple. The floral designs that typically make up the design of the Upright Diagonal Floral Grid are lotus flowers, peonies, sunflowers, and chrysanthemums. And yet, while these are said to be the flowers that make up the floral designs of this style of latticework, these flowers are usually too abstract to actually identify. Typically, the wooden flowers have either six (the most common design) or four petals. The reason for this floral design is that flowers are used to pay respect and reverence to Buddhas and Bodhisattvas.

A picture of Donghaksa Temple in Gongju, Chungcheongnam-do from 2004. Wolgwang-bosal (The Bodhisattva of the Moon) and Ilgwang-bosal (The Bodhisattva of the Sun) adorning the latticework of the Daeung-jeon Hall at Cheonbulsa Temple in Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do. Great Examples

There are a countless amount of great examples of the latticework that adorns Korean Buddhist temples and hermitages throughout Korea. Here are just a few of those examples of this amazing style of Buddhist artistry. Perhaps the most famous is Donghaksa Temple in Gongju, Chungcheongnam-do. Other examples can be found at Haedong Yonggungsa Temple in Gijang-gun, Busan; Tongdosa Temple and Anyangam Hermitage in Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do; Eunhasa Temple in Gimhae, Gyeongsangnam-do; Naesosa Temple in Buan, Jeollabuk-do; and Guryongsa Temple in Buk-gu, Busan.


Korean Buddhist temples are so filled with symbolic meaning that even the latticework has meaning. To the uninitiated eye, the floral latticework might simply be pretty and nothing more. However, while this latticework certainly is beautiful, it also has symbolic meaning, as well. Not only is it beautiful, but it’s also meant to ward off evil spirits and to give praise to those Buddhas and Bodhisattvas housed behind the entry of the intricate and amazing latticework.


Dale's Korean Temple Adventures YouTube

Inner Peace Art Store



Categories: Worldbridges Megafeed